Abstract

Background: Cardiac myxoma is the most common type of primary cardiac tumor, with the majority located in the atrial wall. The tumor is attached to valvular structures in a few cases, of which the pulmonary valve is the least affected. Pulmonary valve myxoma may have different clinical manifestations from the more common cardiac myxomas because of its vital position. A misdiagnosis of these types of cardiac myxoma may be detrimental to the care and well-being of patients. Therefore, this systematic review aims to define the clinical characteristics of pulmonary valve myxoma and how this differs from a more common cardiac myxoma. Methods: Employed literature was obtained from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Springer, and ProQuest without a publication year limit on August 23, 2022. The keyword was “pulmonary valve myxoma.” Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) case report or series, (2) available individual patient data, and (3) myxoma that is attached to pulmonary valve structures with no evidence of metastasis. Non-English language or nonhuman subject studies were excluded. Johanna Briggs Institute checklists were used for the risk of bias assessment. Data are presented descriptively. Results: This review included 9 case reports from 2237 articles. All cases show a low risk of bias. Pulmonary valve myxoma is dominated by males (5:4), and the patient’s median age is 57 years with a bimodal distribution in pediatric and geriatric populations. The clinical manifestation of pulmonary valve myxoma is often unspecified or asymptomatic. However, systolic murmur in the pulmonary valve area is heard in 67% of cases. Echocardiography remains the diagnostic modality of choice in the majority of cases. Tumor attached to the pulmonary cusps or annulus and extended to adjacent tissues in all cases. Therefore, valve replacement or adjacent tissue reconstructions are required in 77% of cases. The recurrence and mortality are considerably high, with 33% and 22% cases, respectively. Conclusions: Pulmonary valve myxoma is more common in males with a bimodal age distribution, and its outcomes seem worse than usual cardiac myxomas. Increasing awareness of its clinical symptoms, early diagnosis, and complete myxoma resection before the presence of congestive heart failure symptoms are important in achieving excellent outcomes. A firm embolization blockade is needed to prevent myxoma recurrence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number99
JournalWorld Journal of Surgical Oncology
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Cardiac tumor
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Clinical characteristics
  • Pulmonary valve myxoma
  • Systematic review

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