Clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus in East Java, Indonesia: A cross-sectional study

Erwin Astha Triyono, Joni Wahyuhadi, Jongky Hendro Prajitno, Hermina Novida, Nenci Siagian, Cupuwatie Cahyani, Arinditia Triasti Putri, Michael Austin Pradipta Lusida, Amal Arifi Hidayat, Karisma Septari Idamusaga, Nastiti Imana Intansari, Jose Asmara, Agrasenfani Hadi, I. Ketut Mega Purnayasa Bandem

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has been perceived as the worsening factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), where diabetes mellitus patients with pre-existing inflammatory condition could develop acute respiratory disease syndrome as well as multi-organ dysfunction. Managing diabetes mellitus amidst severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is also a matter of concern as several antidiabetic therapies could affect the progression of COVID-19. This study aimed to provide the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus receiving blood glucose lowering therapies and COVID-19 symptomatic treatments. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 260 medical records of patients hospitalized between May 2020 to February 2021 in East Java, Indonesia. Patients were confirmed COVID-19 positive based on the results from real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using nasal swab samples collected on hospital admission. Data included were demographic characteristics, COVID-19 symptoms, severity of COVID-19, comorbidities (other than diabetes mellitus), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and 2-hours post-prandial blood glucose (2hPBG), and outcomes. Results: Most of the patients had age range of 41-60 years old (76.1%) with more than a half of the subjects (60%) were obese. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes were distributed evenly among the COVID-19 severities (74.3% in asymptomatic group, 73.6% in mild group, and 74.1% in moderate group). There were reductions in FBG and 2hPBG levels measured before (210.75±81.38 and 271.19±100.7 mg/dL, respectively) and after the treatment (181.03±68.9 and 222.01±86.96 mg/dL, respectively). All patients received multivitamin and symptomatic treatment for COVID-19. Oral antidiabetic drug (57.6%) and insulin (28.8%) were administered to lower the blood glucose level of the patients. As many as 96.9% patients survived, while 3.1% died. Conclusion: COVID-19 could affect the blood glucose level, suggesting the importance of antihyperglycemic therapies among patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus.

Original languageEnglish
Article number684
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • ACE2
  • Blood glucose
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hyperglycemia
  • SARS-CoV-2


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