Clinical applications and mechanism insights of natural flavonoids against type 2 diabetes mellitus

Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Abdelaali Balahbib, Asaad Khalid, Hafiz A. Makeen, Hassan A. Alhazmi, Mohammed Albratty, Andi Hermansyah, Long Chiau Ming, Khang Wen Goh, Nasreddine El Omari

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Diabetes is a complex disease that affects a large percentage of the world's population, and it is associated with several risk factors. Self-management poses a significant challenge, but natural sources have shown great potential in providing effective glucose reducing solutions. Flavonoids, a class of bioactive substances found in different natural sources including medicinal plants, have emerged as promising candidates in this regard. Indeed, several flavonoids, including apigenin, arbutin, catechins, and cyanidin, have demonstrated remarkable anti-diabetic properties. The clinical effectiveness of these flavonoids is linked to their potential to decrease blood glucose concentration and increase insulin concentration. Thus, the regulation of certain metabolic pathways such as glycolysis and neoglycogenesis has also been demonstrated. In vitro and in vivo investigations revealed different mechanisms of action related to flavonoid compounds at subcellular, cellular, and molecular levels. The main actions reside in the activation of glycolytic signaling pathways and the inhibition of signaling that promotes glucose synthesis and storage. In this review, we highlight the clinical efficiency of natural flavonoids as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying this effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere29718
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2024


  • Diabetes
  • Flavonoids
  • Mechanism of action
  • Medicine
  • Metabolic diseases
  • Natural products
  • Plant species


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