Background: COVID-19 patients often experience pneumonia that worsens conditions and causes death. Lung abnormalities and oxygen needs are usually found in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Objective: This study aimed to determine the initial Brixia score and FiO2 as predictors of the severity and mortality of COVID-19. Methods: Secondary data were taken from hospitalised COVID-19 patients at the Airlangga University Hospital from March to September 2021. Three reviewers evaluated chest radiographs with a Brixia score, and the inspiratory fraction of oxygen (FiO2) was calculated as 0.21+(4xairflow). Patients with pulmonary TB, asthma, COPD, HIV/AIDS, and pregnant women were excluded from the study. Results: About 72 respondents were 47% male, with an average age of 50.79. The severe group's mean Brixia score and FiO2 were higher than the non-severe group and higher in non-survivor vs survivor groups (p=0.001). Kappa interobserver of Brixia readers was 0.788; p<0.05. The Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) obtained the Area Under Curve (AUC) in Brixia for severity =0.874; p=0.000 and mortality =0.759; p=0.000. ROC in FiO2 for severity =0.804; p=0.002 and mortality =0.784; p=0.000. The Brixia score of 10.50 had a sensitivity (Sn)=0.778, specificity (Sp)=0.778 for severity and Sn=0.739, and Sp=0.612 for mortality. The cut-off FiO2 of 47.5% (equivalent to 6 litres per minute of oxygen) had Sn=0.778 and Sp=0.667 for severity and Sn=0.826, and Sp=0.571 for mortality. Conclusion: Initial Chest X-Ray scored by Brixia and the inspired oxygen fraction can be used as initial predictors of the severity and mortality of COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationICMHI 2023 - 2023 the 7th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9798400700712
Publication statusPublished - 12 May 2023
Event7th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics, ICMHI 2023 - Kyoto, Japan
Duration: 12 May 202314 May 2023

Publication series

NameACM International Conference Proceeding Series


Conference7th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics, ICMHI 2023


  • COVID-19
  • Imaging
  • infection disease
  • oxygen demand
  • predictor


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