The fabrication of bio-composite-derived bovine amniotic membrane (BAM) with hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an approach to combining organic and inorganic bio-material to improve the properties of both materials. This research aims to combine, fabricate and characterise the bio-composite of BAM–HA. The combination of bio-composite is made from BAM and HAp in a ratio of 30:70, 35:65, and 40:60. Dried BAM is immersed in saline and then blended until it forms an amniotic slurry with a jelly-like consistency. At this stage, HAp is added so that it can bind to BAM. After the mixture is homogeneous, the freeze-drying process is carried out. After fabrication, all the bio-composites were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and porosity analysis, and biological activity was conducted using fibroblasts. The bio-composite has functional groups of amides I, II, III, A, B, OH, CO32− and PO43− according to the results of the FTIR. The XRD analysis showed the presence of HAP crystals. This functional group and the crystal HAP indicate that these two materials are bound. An SEM examination revealed a variety of porous patterns on the surface area. The bio-composite with BAM and HAp at a ratio of 35:65 has a higher mean pore size of 155.625 µm with mean porosity of 89.23% and can maintain the fibroblast viability of 95.14%. In conclusion, the study successfully combined both bio-materials BAM and HAp, which have potential synergistic effects on soft and hard tissue regeneration. The ratio of 35:65 showed good characteristics and was non-toxic.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1403
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • bio-composite
  • bovine amnion
  • characterisation
  • fabrication
  • hydroxyapatite


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