Challenges and opportunities of biocoagulant/bioflocculant application for drinking water and wastewater treatment and its potential for sludge recovery

Setyo Budi Kurniawan, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Muhammad Fauzul Imron, Nor Sakinah Mohd Said, Nur ‘Izzati Ismail, Hassimi Abu Hasan, Ahmad Razi Othman, Ipung Fitri Purwanti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

157 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The utilization of metal-based conventional coagulants/flocculants to remove suspended solids from drinking water and wastewater is currently leading to new concerns. Alarming issues related to the prolonged effects on human health and further pollution to aquatic environments from the generated nonbiodegradable sludge are becoming trending topics. The utilization of biocoagulants/ bioflocculants does not produce chemical residue in the effluent and creates nonharmful, biodegradable sludge. The conventional coagulation–flocculation processes in drinking water and wastewater treatment, including the health and environmental issues related to the utilization of metal-based coagulants/flocculants during the processes, are discussed in this paper. As a counterpoint, the development of biocoagulants/bioflocculants for drinking water and wastewater treatment is intensively reviewed. The characterization, origin, potential sources, and application of this green technology are critically reviewed. This review paper also provides a thorough discussion on the challenges and opportunities regarding the further utilization and application of biocoagulants/ bioflocculants in water and wastewater treatment, including the importance of the selection of raw materials, the simplification of extraction processes, the application to different water and wastewater characteristics, the scaling up of this technology to a real industrial scale, and also the potential for sludge recovery by utilizing biocoagulants/bioflocculants in water/wastewater treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9312
Pages (from-to)1-33
Number of pages33
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume17
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2020

Keywords

  • Alum
  • Coagulation
  • Environment
  • Flocculation
  • Green technology
  • Natural coagulant

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