Soluble CD163 and small dense LDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes patients

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Introduction: The sdLDL cholesterol proportion is a better marker for the prediction of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Macrophages play a crucial role in both initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, the underlying mechanism of CVDs. This study investigated the correlation between soluble CD163 as a biomarker macrophage activation and sdLDL cholesterol in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects for the first time. Methods: This study was an observational analytic cross-sectional study involved 40 patients with T2DM in Surabaya, Indonesia. The sdLDL was measured using a direct enzymatic colorimetric method using Architect c8000. The levels of sCD163 were measured by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay technique using a specific monoclonal antibody for human CD163 using Quantikine® Elisa produced by R&D Systems Inc., USA. Results: The average level of HbA1c in this study was 8.01 ± 1.39 %, and more than half of the subjects had HbA1c levels >8 % that revealed most of the patients in this study were in poor glycemic control. The average sdLDL cholesterol level in this study was 40.80 ± 19.14 mg/dL, and the mean of soluble CD163 was 741.22 ± 41.55 ng/mL. There were no differences in gender (male or female), glycemic control (<8 % vs >8 %), hypertension, and smoking on sCD163 levels and sdLDL cholesterol levels. We found a positive correlation between the soluble CD163 level with sdLDL (r=0.440, p=0.004). Conclusion: The atherogenic lipoprotein fraction sdLDL cholesterol level correlated with soluble CD163 level. This could be a new link between lipid dysregulation, innate immunity, and atherosclerosis in T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S305-S312
JournalGaceta Medica de Caracas
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Soluble CD163
  • T2DM
  • sdLDL


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