Budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate triple therapy prevents pulmonary hypertension in a COPD mouse model via NFκB inactivation

Ratoe Suraya, Tatsuya Nagano, Gusty Rizky Teguh Ryanto, Wiwin Is Effendi, Daisuke Hazama, Naoko Katsurada, Masatsugu Yamamoto, Motoko Tachihara, Noriaki Emoto, Yoshihiro Nishimura, Kazuyuki Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a health problem that results in death, commonly due to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Here, by utilizing a mouse model of intratracheal elastase-induced emphysema that presents three different phases of COPD, we sought to observe whether budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate (BGF) triple therapy could prevent COPD-PH in addition to ameliorating COPD progression. Methods: We utilized intratracheal elastase-induced emphysema mouse model and performed experiments in three phases illustrating COPD progression: inflammatory (1 day post-elastase), emphysema (3 weeks post-elastase) and PH (4 weeks post-elastase), while treatments of BGF and controls (vehicle, one-drug, and two-drug combinations) were started in prior to elastase instillation (inflammatory phase), at day 7 (emphysema), or at day 14 (PH phase). Phenotype analyses were performed in each phase. In vitro, A549 cells or isolated mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC) were treated with TNFα with/without BGF treatment to analyze NFκB signaling and cytokine expression changes. Results: We observed significant reductions in the proinflammatory phenotype observed in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) 1 day after elastase administration in mice treated with BGF compared with that in mice administered elastase alone (BALF neutrophil percentage, p = 0.0011 for PBS/Vehicle vs. PBS/Elastase, p = 0.0161 for PBS/Elastase vs. BGF). In contrast, only BGF treatment significantly ameliorated the elastase-induced emphysematous lung structure and desaturation after three weeks of elastase instillation (mean linear intercept, p = 0.0156 for PBS/Vehicle vs. PBS/Elastase, p = 0.0274 for PBS/Elastase vs. BGF). Furthermore, BGF treatment prevented COPD-PH development, as shown by improvements in the hemodynamic and histological phenotypes four weeks after elastase treatment (right ventricular systolic pressure, p = 0.0062 for PBS/Vehicle vs. PBS/Elastase, p = 0.027 for PBS/Elastase vs. BGF). Molecularly, BGF acts by inhibiting NFκB-p65 phosphorylation and subsequently decreasing the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines in both alveolar epithelial and pulmonary endothelial cells. Conclusion: Our results collectively showed that BGF treatment could prevent PH in addition to ameliorating COPD progression via the inhibition of inflammatory NFκB signaling.

Original languageEnglish
Article number173
JournalRespiratory Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Budesionde
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Formoterol fumarate
  • Glycopyrronium
  • NFκB
  • Pulmonary hypertension


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