Bovine hydroxyapatite-based scaffold accelerated the inflammatory phase and bone growth in rats with bone defect

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Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a biomaterial widely used to treat bone defect, such as due to traffic accident. The HA scaffold is obtained from synthetic HA or natural sources, such as bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA). This study aims to compare the characteristics and in vivo performance of BHA-based and HA-based scaffolds. For this purpose, the scaffold was formulated with gelatin (GEL) and characterised by SEM-EDX, FTIR and mini autograph. The defect model was carried out on the femur area of Wistar rats classified into three animal groups: defect, HA-GEL and BHA-GEL. Postoperatively (7, 14 and 28 days), the bone was radiologically evaluated, and stained with haematoxylin–eosin, anti-CD80 and anti-CD163. The BHA-GEL scaffold showed a regular surface and spherical particle shape, whereas the HA-GEL scaffold exhibited irregular surface. The BHA-GEL scaffold had higher pore size and compressive strength and lower calcium-to-phosphorus ratio than the HA-GEL scaffold. In vivo study showed that the expression of CD80 in the three experimental groups was not significantly different. However, the expression of CD163 differed significantly between the groups. The BHA-GEL group showed robust expression of CD163 on day 7, which rapidly decreased over time. It also showed increased osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes cell count that contributed to the integrity of the defect area. In conclusion, the BHA-based scaffold exhibited the desired physical and chemical characteristics that benefit in vivo performance versus the HA-based scaffold. Thus, the BHA-based scaffold may be used as a bone graft.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Applied Biomaterials and Functional Materials
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Bone inflammation
  • bone remodelling
  • carbonated hydroxyapatite
  • osteoconductive
  • scaffold characteristics
  • traffic accident


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