Abstract

Tumor resection often creates critical size defects in the mandible which requires reconstruction to restore mastication and speech as well as for aesthetic reasons. The gold standard of mandibular reconstruction is an autogenous bone graft, however, it is associated with limited availability and donor site morbidities. The tissue engineering approach using bovine bone xenograft scaffold seeded with human umbilical cord stem cells is being developed to become an alternative to autogenous bone grafts. Pre-clinical studies should be performed to confirm its efficacy. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the potential of freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft (FDBBX) scaffold - human umbilical cord stem cell (hUCMSC) as bone graft substitute in the reconstruction of a critical size defect in a dog's mandible. A 40mm long discontinuity defect created in a dog's mandible was reconstructed with FDBBX scaffold seeded with hUCMSC and fixed with a reconstruction plate. At 3, 6, and 9 months postoperatively, serial mandibular imaging were taken. At 9 months, sample collection was performed of the pristine and grafted bone. The success criteria included new bone formation and the union of the new and host bones. New bone was formed in the grafted site, although of smaller dimensions compared to that of the original scaffold. A stable union was documented between the new and host bone at both sites. Sample of grafted (new) bone histologically showed trabeculae of lamellar bone with evidence of marrow spaces, while no residual graft material was seen indicating good bone regeneration. FDBBX scaffold seeded with hUCMSC has the potential to be used as a bone graft substitute to reconstruct segmental defects in the mandible. However, randomized control trial studies are required to confirm the efficacy of the new bone formation and the biomechanical properties of the grafted bone in dogs' mandible resembling the actual clinical situation of tumor resection defects in human mandibles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4871-4876
Number of pages6
JournalBiochemical and Cellular Archives
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

Keywords

  • Bovine bone xenograft
  • Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell
  • Mandible
  • Segmental defect

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