Boronic-acid-modified nanomaterials have inspired significant research interest owing to their unique biocompatibility and excellent reversible interaction with diol groups containing saccharides, protein, DNA, and other related glucose compounds. However, the different sources and methods change the application of nanomaterials. Thus, surface-functionalized nanomaterials are of interest as one of the best ways to improve the application of the biomedical field. In this mini-review, we summarize recent studies on boronic-acid-modified nanomaterials, based on the carbon dot group and graphene oxides, which have been used in the fields of bioimaging, biosensing, antiviral inhibitors, etc. Moreover, the multivalent interaction on boronic-acid-modified materials has become the main key improvement for targeting treatment in the future. We mainly focused on any previously reported papers for synergistic future opportunities of superior biomedical applications of carbon dots (CDs) in the management and diagnostics of nanomedicine fields.