Dialysate fluid is a vital component in hemodialysis therapy. Processing and reusing spent dialysate in hemodialysis significantly reduces costs and produces environmentally friendly hemodialysis. In this research, mixed matrix membrane adsorbers (MMMAs), which have the potential to recycle spent dialysate, have been developed. MMMA is composed of cellulose acetate (CA)-based polymers synthesized from cellulose isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) and integrated with silica (Si) bio-adsorbent from rice husk ash waste. The membrane was cast using the phase inversion method to form MMMAs CA-Si. The MMMAs CA-Si has a porous structure with evenly distributed silica particles. The pristine CA membranes had swelling and porosity degrees of 38.89 % and 21.23 %, while the MMMAs CA-Si had swelling and porosity degrees of 41.43 % and 27.81 %, respectively. The pristine CA membrane had a clean water flux of 86.86 L/m2h, while the MMMAs CA-Si membrane had a 96.25 L/m2h clean water flux. The MMMAs CA-Si has a tensile strength of 15.89 (Kgf/mm2) and an elongation of 14.01 %. The pristine CA membrane had a creatinine adsorption capacity of 2.8 mg/g, while the CA-Si MMMAs membrane had a maximum adsorption capacity of 9.98 mg/g. The maximum adsorption capacity (qm) is 9.98 mg/g MMMAs, equivalent to 24.95 mg creatinine/g silica in MMMAs and the dissociation constant (Kd) value is 1.91 mg/L. Creatinine can be removed from the dialysate through a continuous flow dialysis process using MMMAs CA-Si with a total removal of 10.48 mg/g or above 66.45 %. Creatinine can also be filtered by cross-flow circulation, and the total creatinine removal is above 81.0 %. MMMAs CA-Si can be an alternative separation medium to remove creatinine in the dialysate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)354-365
Number of pages12
JournalSouth African Journal of Chemical Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Cellulose acetate
  • Creatinine
  • Dialysate regeneration
  • Mixed matrix membrane adsorbers
  • Silica particles


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