Bariatric Arterial Embolization with Non-spherical Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Ghrelin Suppression in a Swine Model

Jae Min Kim, Man Deuk Kim, Kichang Han, Lailatul Muqmiroh, Seung Up Kim, Gyoung Min Kim, Joonho Kwon, Sung Il Park, Jong Yun Won, Do Yun Lee

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To evaluate the effect of bariatric arterial embolization (BAE) with non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles on systemic ghrelin levels, weight change, and gastric ulceration risk in a swine model. Materials and Methods: From March 2014 to February 2015, ten healthy swine were used in the study (mean weight 31.5 kg; range 24.0–41.5 kg). The animals were randomly assigned to two groups: the embolized group (n = 5) in which BAE was performed and the control group (n = 5). In the embolized group, BAE was performed by selectively infusing 150–250 or 50–150 μm PVA into the gastric arteries that supplied the fundus of the stomach. In the control group, a sham procedure was performed with saline infusion. Plasma ghrelin levels were prospectively obtained at baseline and every 2 weeks thereafter. Endoscopy was performed 3 weeks after BAE to see whether any gastric ulcer occurred. To determine the durability of the occluded arteries, repeated celiac trunk angiography was performed 8 weeks after BAE. Then, all the swine were killed and necropsies were performed. Results: The mean post-procedure ghrelin value decreased by 370.0 pg/mL in the embolized group at week 3 (mean 536.0 ± 334.3 pg/mL) and week 5 (mean 515.0 ± 150.0 pg/mL, p < 0.05) relative to baseline (880.0 ± 559.5 pg/mL), respectively, but ghrelin levels were not significantly decreased between the embolized and control groups. There was a significant body weight change as follows: 35.1 ± 9.5 to 46.6 ± 15.7 kg and 31.8 ± 5.8 to 41.2 ± 6.6 kg at baseline and endpoint in the control and embolized groups, respectively (p < 0.05). However, the difference between groups was not significant at endpoint. In the embolized group, ulcerations were identified in three animals (60%) and the recanalization of the embolized arteries was noted on follow-up angiography in three animals (60%), respectively. Conclusion: BAE with PVA particles can transiently suppress ghrelin levels in embolized animals, but levels are not significantly different compared to controls. Stomach ulcerations were identified in 60% of the embolized animals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)744-749
Number of pages6
JournalCardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Bariatric embolization
  • Gastric artery embolization
  • Ghrelin
  • Obesity
  • Weight loss


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