Automated Staging of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Convolutional Support Vector Machine (CSVM) Based on Fundus Image Data

Dian Candra Rini Novitasari, Fatmawati, Rimuljo Hendradi, Rinda Nariswari, Rizal Amegia Saputra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes mellitus, which attacks the eyes and often leads to blindness. The number of DR patients is significantly increasing because some people with diabetes are not aware that they have been affected by complications due to chronic diabetes. Some patients complain that the diagnostic process takes a long time and is expensive. So, it is necessary to do early detection automatically using Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD). The DR classification process based on these several classes has several steps: preprocessing and classification. Preprocessing consists of resizing and augmenting data, while in the classification process, CSVM method is used. The CSVM method is a combination of CNN and SVM methods so that the feature extraction and classification processes become a single unit. In the CSVM process, the first stage is extracting convolutional features using the existing architecture on CNN. CSVM could overcome the shortcomings of CNN in terms of training time. CSVM succeeded in accelerating the learning process and did not reduce the accuracy of CNN's results in 2 class, 3 class, and 5 class experiments. The best result achieved was at 2 class classification using CSVM with data augmentation which had an accuracy of 98.76% with a time of 8 seconds. On the contrary, CNN with data augmentation only obtained an accuracy of 86.15% with a time of 810 minutes 14 seconds. It can be concluded that CSVM was faster than CNN, and the accuracy obtained was also better to classify DR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2223-2229
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal on Informatics Visualization
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • CNN
  • CSVM
  • SVM
  • diabetic retinopathy
  • feature learning


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