Hyperglycemia conditions in diabetes mellitus can lead to delayed wound healing. One of the wounds in the oral cavity that occurs in diabetes patients is traumatic ulcers. The persistence of long-term inflammation in this condition can be attributed to a significant polarization towards the M1 phenotype. Additionally, the transition from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the pro-regenerative, anti-inflammatory M2 state is severely hindered. The delayed wound healing observed in individuals with diabetes mellitus may be linked to the activation of the Pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) Inflammasome pathway. Nuclear factor-erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), a vital regulator of the body’s antioxidant defenses that can limit the inflammatory response induced by NF-κB. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory derived from astaxanthin. Astaxanthin can activate the transcription factor Nrf2 and affect NLRP3. This review reviews the effects of astaxanthin so that it can be a therapeutic candidate for wound healing in diabetes mellitus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1824-1829
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Astaxanthin
  • NLRP3
  • Nrf2
  • diabetes mellitus
  • wound healing


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