Associations of Urban Residence and Wealth Index With Various Sources of Contraceptives Among Young Women Aged 15–24 Years in 25 Sub-Saharan African Countries

Asantesana Kamuyango, Tsung Yu, Chon Kit Ao, Susan C. Hu, Lutfi Agus Salim, Yuly Sulistyorini, Chung Yi Li

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Purpose: Appreciating user differences in contraceptive sources is essential for improving contraceptive access and safeguarding an equitable and sustainable future. Therefore, this study explored whether urban residence and individual wealth are associated with where women access contraception (e.g., government, private, or nongovernmental organization provider) and assessed whether these associations are modified by the income level in the respondents' country of residence. Methods: We analyzed the cross-sectional data of Demographic Health Surveys conducted between 2009 and 2020 in 25 countries. The final data set included 25,081 young women aged between 15 and 24 years who are using contraceptives. Multinomial logistic regression models were established to assess the associations of our outcome variable, namely, various contraceptive sources, with our main independent variables, namely, urban residence and wealth index. We also assessed the potential effect modification by country income level on the above associations. Results: We observed obvious urban–rural and rich–poor disparities in odds of using contraceptive sources. Generally, living in urban residences and being wealthy were positively associated with all sources of contraceptives. However, these associations were mostly modified by country income level. People living in urban residences utilized more private sources, especially in low-income (beta coefficient, B = 0.973) and upper–middle-income countries (B = 1.361). Young women in urban areas across all analyzed countries were also more likely to use contraceptives from other sources (B = 0.267). In addition, women from poor households were less likely to use private sources (B = −1.166) and other sources (B = −0.547). Discussion: Even though young women may prefer private sources of contraceptives due to their confidentiality and flexible hours, these sources carry more benefits for rich and urban young women than for poor and rural women. The differential accessibility and affordability may account for the observed urban–rural and rich–poor disparities in using contraceptive sources, respectively, and the income level of a country is likely to modify such disparities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)599-606
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Adolescent Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Africa south of the Saharan
  • Contraception behavior
  • Family planning services
  • Women's health services


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