Background: For more than ten years, Indonesia has health law, one of which states that local governments are mandated to establish Smoke Free Area (SFA). The results of 2018 National Basic Health Research shows tobacco consumption is still quite high and increasing compared to the results of 2007 and 2013 National Basic Health Research. The burden of disease in Indonesia is increasing every year. Methods: This study aims to describe SFA regulation and analyze the relationship between the percentage of smokers and the prevalence of smoking attributable morbidity. Data from the 2018 Basic Health Research in Indonesia with the number of units of analysis were 514 districts and cities level. The design of the study was cross-sectional study. The variables analyzed were the percentage of smokers, the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), pneumonia, lung tuberculosis, asthma, and mental emotional disorders. Geographical mapping of the distribution of District/City with Smoking-Free Areas was made using QGIS 3·16. Results: Around 72% of districts/cities in Indonesia already had local regulations of SFA after more than ten years implementation of the regulation of the health law. There was a significant relationship between the high percentage of smokers and the high prevalence of diabetes (p value: 0·000, PR: 1·342, 95%CI 1·135 to 1·587), hypertension (p value: 0·000, PR 1·631, 95%CI 1·252 to 2·124), and lung tuberculosis (p value: 0·008, PR 1·219, 95%CI 1·049 to 1·417) at the District/City level. However, there was no significant association between URTI, pneumonia, asthma, and mental emotional disorders. Conclusion: The percentage of smokers in an area was associated with diabetes, hypertension, and lung tuberculosis. The implementation of Smoke Free Area should be evaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2202
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • Mental health
  • Public health
  • Smoking
  • Tuberculosis


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