Area control error enhancement of two-area power system using hybrid intelligence optimal controller

Muhammad Abdillah, Herlambang Setiadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Area control error (ACE) is a critical factor in linked power systems. When a disturbance occurs, ACE is utilized to determine how much power should be deployed. As a result, it is critical that the ACE have as little inaccuracy as feasible. This research provided a strategy for improving the dynamic response of ACE in a power system. A hybrid optimal controller is the name given to this technology. Coordination between the proportional-integral (PI) controller and the state feedback controller based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is the concept of a hybrid optimum controller. All controller parameters are created utilizing artificial immune system (AIS) clonal selection to improve coordination. The proposed control mechanism is demonstrated using a two-area power system as a test system. To investigate the efficacy of the suggested strategy, time domain simulation is used. The simulation results show that the suggested method outperforms the previous situations in this work (the overshot of frequency deviation in areas 1 and 2 is 0.00029 and 0.00015, respectively).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1258-1265
Number of pages8
JournalIndonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • Area control error
  • Artificial immune system
  • Clean energy technology
  • Clonal selection algorithm
  • Linear quadratic regulator
  • Proportional integral controller


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