Antiretroviral adherence and treatment outcomes among patients living with HIV at an Indonesian HIV clinic: a cross-sectional study

Zamrotul Izzah, Budi Suprapti, Tri P. Asmarawati, Christoffer Åberg, Daan J. Touw

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Objective: This study assessed antiretroviral adherence and treatment outcomes among outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on patients with HIV over 18 years old receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least six months at an Indonesian clinic, from January to March 2021. The previously validated self-reported adherence questionnaire was used to recall antiretroviral use. Viral load and CD4 were indicators of treatment outcomes. Binary logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with nonadherence and poor treatment outcomes. Results: Ninety-five patients were included in the study (male 70.5%, median [interquartile range, IQR] age 35 [29–42] years, and median [IQR] treatment duration 29 [15–49] months). Adherence greater than 95% was observed in 89.5%, 88.4%, 95.8% of the patients in the past week, month, and three months, respectively. Patients with secondary education or lower were associated with low adherence (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 7.73, 95%CI: 1.12– 53.19). Viral suppression and improved CD4 were observed in 83.2% and 68.4% of the patients, respectively. Taking non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)-based regimen was associated with viral suppression (aOR: 0.01, 95%CI: 0.00–0.14) as well as high CD4 count (aOR: 0.16, 95%CI: 0.03– 0.83). Being diagnosed with stage 4 of HIV (aOR: 72.38, 95%CI: 3.11–1687.28) and having adherence of 95% or lower (aOR: 68.84, 95%CI: 4.86–974.89) were associated with non-suppressed viral load, and having HIV stage 3 (aOR: 7.81, 95%CI: 1.26–48.40) or 4 (aOR: 26.15, 95%CI: 3.42–200.10) at diagnosis was associated with low CD4. Conclusion: Rates of self-reported adherence and treatment outcomes were high. Secondary education or lower was a predictor of low adherence. Using NNRTIs-based therapy was associated with good treatment outcomes; meanwhile, stage 3 or 4 of HIV at diagnosis and low adherence were predictors of poor outcomes. Therefore, strategies to improve adherence and treatment outcomes are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2898
JournalPharmacy Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • antiretroviral agents
  • CD4 count
  • HIV
  • Indonesia
  • medication adherence
  • viral load


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