Antioxidant capacity of five microalgae species and their effect on heat shock protein 70 expression in the brine shrimp Artemia

Irene Kai Ru Tiong, Thilahgavani Nagappan, Mohd Effendy Abdul Wahid, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku Muhammad, Toda Tatsuki, Woro Hastuti Satyantini, Gunanti Mahasri, Patrick Sorgeloos, Yeong Yik Sung

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21 Citations (Scopus)


Oxidative stress caused by chemicals brings about mass mortalities in aquatic organisms and in this context, antioxidants and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) stimulating compounds represent potential alternatives to alleviate this problem during aquaculture. The antioxidant capacity and efficacies of five Malaysian indigenous microalgae, namely Auxenochlorella pyrenoidosa, Chlorella vulgaris, Messastrum gracile, Desmodesmus subspicatus and Parachlorella kessleri to regulate Hsp70 expression in the brine shrimp Artemia, an important live food species, were examined. A. pyrenoidosa contained the highest total phenol and flavonoid content (48.3 mg GAE/g extract and 34.7 mg QE/g) across all the microalgae examined in this study, whereas the lowest occurred with C. vulgaris (24.4 mg GAE/g extract and 14.0 mg QE/g). The ferric reducing antioxidant power of A. pyrenoidosa, C. vulgaris, M. gracile, D. subspicatus and P. kessleri respectively stood at 0.78, 0.62, 1.01, 0.77 and 0.68 ferrous equivalents (mM), with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay revealed that A. pyrenoidosa possessed the highest scavenging activity at 1 mg/mL concentration. Interestingly, application of 1.0–2.0 × 106 cells/mL C. vulgaris, M. gracile, D. subspicatus, and P. kessleri as feed enhanced Hsp70 accumulation in Artemia, indicating that these microalgae consist stimulating compound(s) which potentially promote the synthesis of the 70-kDa stress protein in this crustacean species. Taken together, results from this study revealed that microalgae possess various antioxidant properties and coupled with their abilities to induce Hsp70, they are potential oxidative stress control alternatives in Artemia and perhaps other aquatic organisms used in aquaculture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100433
JournalAquaculture Reports
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Antioxidant
  • Artemia franciscana
  • Heat shock protein 70
  • Microalgae
  • Stress


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