Antioxidant and UV-Blocking Properties of a Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Lignin Composite Film Produced from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

Muhammad T. Haqiqi, Wichanee Bankeeree, Pongtharin Lotrakul, Prasit Pattananuwat, Hunsa Punnapayak, Rico Ramadhan, Takaomi Kobayashi, Rudianto Amirta, Sehanat Prasongsuk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp with the highest cellulose content of 83.42% was obtained from an optimized process of acid pretreatment (0.5% v/v H2SO4), alkaline extraction (15% w/w NaOH), and hydrogen peroxide bleaching (10% w/v H2O2), respectively. The EFB cellulose was carboxymethylated, and the obtained carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was readily water-soluble (81.32%). The EFB CMC was blended with glycerol and cast into a composite film. Lignin that precipitated from the EFB black liquor was also incorporated into the film at different concentrations, and its effect on the UV-blocking properties of the film was determined. Interestingly, the EFB CMC film without lignin addition completely blocked UV-B transmittance. The incorporation of lignin at all concentrations significantly enhanced the UV-A blocking and other physical properties of the film, including the surface roughness, thickness, and thermal stability, although the tensile strength and water vapor permeability were not significantly affected. Complete UV-A and UV-B blocking were observed when lignin was added at 0.2% (w/v), and the film also exhibited the highest antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals with an half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.87 mg mL-1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9653-9666
Number of pages14
JournalACS Omega
Volume6
Issue number14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2021

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