Incorporating antimicrobial components into food packaging materials can prevent microbial contamination. Fungus combs could be an alternative source of natural antimicrobial agents. In this study, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were obtained from fungus combs isolated from Indomalayan termite (Macrotermes gilvus Hagen) mound. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage microorganisms including Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosaATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion and microdilution. Results showed that ethyl acetate extract formed the largest diameter inhibition zone for all tested bacteria and fungi, exhibited antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 0.39 and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively, and suppressed A. flavus and A. niger with an MIC value of 0.78 mg/mL. This extract contained guaiacol and syringol, which were predicted as the main antimicrobial components in fungus comb. n-Hexane extract only inhibited Gram-positive bacteria. S. aureus ATCC 25923 was the most sensitive to all the extracts, and A. flavus was more sensitive than A. niger. All these fungus comb extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, S. aureus ATCC 25923, A. flavus, and A. niger. This study revealed that fungus comb extracts, especially ethyl acetate, could be considered as a new antimicrobial agent. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
- Fungus comb extracts
- Macrotermes gilvus Hagen