Antibacterial activity of fig leaf (Ficus carica Linn.) extract against Enterococcus faecalis and its cytotoxicity effects on fibroblast cells

Intan Nirwana, Devi Rianti, R. Helal Soekartono, Rr Dwi Listyorini, Desi Putri Basuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the bacteria that commonly found in root canal and pulp infection after root canal treatment. Sodium hypochlorite is the most widely used root canal irrigation, but it has toxic properties if exposed to periradicular tissues. It is necessary to develop an alternative for root canal irrigation. Fig leaf (Ficus carica Linn.) extract contains active substances such as flavonoid, tannin, and terpenoid which have been known for their antibacterial potency. Aim: This study aimed to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of fig leaf (F. carica Linn.) extract against E. faecalis and its cytotoxicity on fibroblast cells in vitro. Materials and Methods: A serial dilution method was used to determine the MBC of fig leaf extract on E. faecalis which grown on nutrient agar media. Inoculation was carried out at concentrations that suspected minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), MBC, concentration between MIC and MBC, and control groups on different nutrient agar. MIC and MBC of fig leaf extract against E. faecalis were known by counting the growth of bacteria colonies on nutrient agar media in CFU/ml. The cytotoxicity of MIC and MBC of the extract acquired were tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the results were read using an ELISA reader. Data of E. faecalis colonies were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. Results: The result showed a significant difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Fig leaf extract at a concentration of 50% showed no bacterial growth, and cell viability at this concentration was 77.7%. Conclusion: Fig leaf extract has antibacterial effect on E. faecalis with MBC at 50% and not cytotoxic to fibroblast cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)342-347
Number of pages6
JournalVeterinary World
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2018


  • 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Fig leaf (Ficus carica Linn.) extract
  • Minimum bactericidal concentration


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