Anthropometric Measurements Analysis for Sex Determination in Human Ribs: A Systematic Review

Nurul Hannim Zaidun, Aspalilah Alias, Eric Chung, Ng Wei Lin, Rani Sakaran, Nur Damia Iwani Zulkiflee, Viskasari Pintoko Kalanjati, Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla, Jaafar Aliyu, Choy Ker Woon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Sex estimation is one of the primary aspects in determining the biological characteristics of an unknown adult skeleton. The variations between male and female skeletons can be attributed to a complex interplay of genetics, hormonal factors, culture, and environment. However, skeletal remains frequently found are often incomplete, with most sexually dimorphic bone like the pelvis and skull potentially absent. Hence, it is essential to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of multiple skeletal elements to attain a high degree of precision in sex estimation within forensic anthropology context. Ribs have been utilized in forensic anthropology for sex estimation since the 1980s, a comprehensive review of their sexual dimorphism is yet to be conducted. In this study, we examined various anthropological methods applied to ribs for sex estimation. Method: A systematic search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar from 2000 to 2020, retrieving a total of 10 articles that met the inclusive criteria. The search followed the main points outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: This systematic review provides a comprehensive summary of the analytical approaches employed to estimate sex using human ribs. Conclusion: The findings revealed that different part of human ribs can be reliably used for sex estimation via metric method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-284
Number of pages10
JournalMalaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Anthropology
  • Forensic
  • Ribs
  • Sex determination


Dive into the research topics of 'Anthropometric Measurements Analysis for Sex Determination in Human Ribs: A Systematic Review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this