Anthrax disease burden: Impact on animal and human health

Aswin Rafif Khairullah, Shendy Canadya Kurniawan, Mustofa Helmi Effendi, Agus Widodo, Abdullah Hasib, Otto Sahat Martua Silaen, Ikechukwu Benjamin Moses, Sheila Marty Yanestria, Maria Aega Gelolodo, Dyah Ayu Kurniawati, Sancaka Chasyer Ramandinianto, Daniah Ashri Afnani, Katty Hendriana Priscilia Riwu, Emmanuel Nnabuike Ugbo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. According to current knowledge, the disease originates in sub-Saharan Africa, especially Egypt and Mesopotamia. Laboratory tests involving direct staining or culture of samples taken from malignant pustules, sputum, blood, or patient discharge must be performed to establish a diagnosis. B. anthracis infection can enter the body through the skin, mouth, or nose. Human infection is usually caused by contact with infected animals or animal products. Anthrax causes a reduction in resource efficiency and decreases livestock productivity. B. anthracis spores are resistant to extreme temperatures, pressure, pH, drying, solvents, and ultraviolet light. The biological weapon of this disease may be fatal if it is designed to spread B. anthracis spores by aerosols. In the past, the treatment of human anthrax with penicillin at a high dose was the preferred method. The public can take several measures to prevent anthrax infection, such as purchasing and consuming meat that has been legally certified to have been slaughtered in a slaughterhouse, consuming healthy and properly cooked animal meat, and washing hands with antiseptic soap after handling, processing, and cooking animal products. This review aimed to describe the etiology, pathogenesis, mechanism of infection, epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical symptoms, transmission, risk factors, public health importance, economic impact, potential as a bio-warfare agent, treatment, and control of anthrax.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-55
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of One Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • animal health
  • anthrax
  • human health
  • infectious disease


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