Antenatal care utilization on low birth weight children among women with high-risk births [version 1; peer review: 1 approved with reservations]

Diah Puspita Sari, Mario Ekoriano, Resti Pujihasvuty, Sari Kistiana, Sri Lilestina Nasution, Irma Ardiana, Edy Purwoko, Yuli Puspita Devi, Muthmainnah Muthmainnah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major public health problem in Indonesia, while LBW is a leading cause of neonatal mortality. Adequate antenatal care (ANC) utilization would help to prevent the incidence of LBW babies. This study aims to examine the association between ANC utilization and LBW children among women with high-risk birth criteria. High-risk birth criteria consisted of 4T which were too young (mother's age <20 years old), too old (mother's age >35 years old), too close (age gap between children <2 years), and too many (number of children >2 children). Methods: This study utilized calendar data from the women’s module from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS), with the unit analysis only the last birth of women of childbearing age (15–49), which numbered 16,627 women. From this number, analysis was done by separating the criteria for women with high-risk birth. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the impact of ANC and socio-demographic factors on LBW among women with high-risk birth criteria. Results: This study revealed that only among women with too many children criteria (>2 children), adequate ANC utilization was significantly associated with LBW of children, even after controlling for a range of socio-demographic factors (p < 0.05). In all four women criteria, preterm birth was more likely to have LBW than those infants who were born normally (above and equal to 2500 grams) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: According to WHO, qualified ANC standards have not been fully implemented, including in the case of ANC visits of at least eight times, and it is hoped that ANC with health workers at health facilities can be increased. There is also a need for increased monitoring of pregnant women with a high risk of 4T to keep doing ANC visits to reduce LBW births.

Original languageEnglish
Article number399
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • antenatal care
  • low birth weight
  • pregnant women
  • risky maternal


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