Analysis of gastric microbiota and Helicobacter pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease

Titong Sugihartono, Kartika Afrida Fauzia, Muhammad Miftahussurur, Langgeng Agung Waskito, Purwo Sri Rejeki, Reny I’tishom, Ricky Indra Alfaray, Dalla Doohan, Rizki Amalia, Camilia Metadea Aji Savitri, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Junko Akada, Takashi Matsumoto, Yoshio Yamaoka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: We evaluated the microbiota in the stomach of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) patients. We compared Erosive Reflux Disease (ERD) to gastritis and Non-erosive Reflux Disease (NERD) subjects by 16S rRNA approach on gastric biopsy specimens. A total of 197 subjects were included consisting of gastritis (68; 34.52%), ERD (55; 27.92%), and NERD (74; 37.56%). After quality filtering, 187 samples were included for OTU analysis using Qiime2. Results: We observed a significant difference in alpha diversity (Shannon and Simpson indexes were P = 0.0016 and P = 0.017, respectively). A significant decrease in alpha diversity index was observed in NERD with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive subjects than in gastritis (Simpson index P = 0.022; Shannon index P = 0.029), indicating a significant influence of H. pylori on the diversity in the stomach despite the diseases. In H. pylori-negative samples, alpha diversity measurement by the abundance coverage estimates (ACE) and Fisher Test revealed that ERD had significantly lower richness than gastritis and NERD groups (P = 0.00012 and P = 0.00043, respectively). Anaerobacillus sp. could only be found in ERD patients by LEFse analysis. Conclusions: The presence of ERD could alter microbiome diversity. A negative correlation between H. pylori and ERD is shown in this microbiome study but not in NERD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number38
JournalGut Pathogens
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • ERD
  • GERD
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Infectious disease
  • Microbiome
  • NERD


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