Analysis of biopsychosociospiritual factors affecting loneliness in the elderly in Surabaya City

Febria Rike Erliana, Erikavitri Yulianti, Atika Atika, Hendy Muagiri Margono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes in the aging process in the elderly can increase the risk of loneliness. Loneliness is a cause of physical and mental health problems in the elderly, such as depression, suicidal ideation, sleep disorders, cognitive decline, emotional disorders, and others. Paying attention to risk factors that affect it is one of the efforts to prevent loneliness. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the factors that affect it in an effort to create psychological well-being. This study analyzes biopsychosociospiritual factors that affect loneliness in the elderly in Surabaya City. This study is an observational analytic quantitative study with a cross-sectional design approach. This study was conducted on the elderly population in Surabaya City. The used sampling technique was multistage random sampling. Data were collected using demographic questionnaires, Barthel Index, Numeric Rating Scale, Ten-Item Personality Inventory, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales, APGAR Family Questionnaire, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Malay Spiritual Well-being Scale, and dan University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale. Biopsychosociospiritual factors that affect loneliness in the elderly in Surabaya City based on the results of bivariate analysis of Chi-square test are multimorbidity, pain, education, social groups, and social support. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis show that multimorbidity and social support influence loneliness in the elderly in Surabaya City. Multimorbidity, pain, education, social groups, and social support influence loneliness in the elderly in Surabaya City.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1416-1426
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Research
Volume6
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2024

Keywords

  • biopsychosociospiritual
  • elderly
  • Loneliness
  • psychological well-being

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