Intervertebral disc degeneration is a natural process of aging. It can cause physical, psychological, and socioeconomic impact due to the decreasing function of the spine and pain manifestation. Conservative and surgical treatment to correct symptoms and structural anomalies does not fully recover the degenerated disc. Several therapeutic approaches have been developed to improve the clinical result and patient's quality of life. This paper aims to review previous studies that discussed potential novel approach in order to make effective degenerated disc restoration. We tried to briefly describe IVD, IDD, also review several promising current therapeutic approaches for degenerated disc treatment, including its relevance to the degeneration process and limitation to be applied in a clinical setting. There are generally four current therapeutic approaches that we reviewed; growth factors, small molecules, gene therapy, and stem cells. These new approaches aim to not only correct the symptoms but also restore and delay the degeneration process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103619
JournalAnnals of Medicine and Surgery
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • Cell therapy
  • Current therapeutic approach
  • Gene therapy
  • Growth factors
  • Intervertebral disc degeneration
  • Stem cells


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