An investigation of syrinx morphometry and sound frequency association during the chirping period in lovebirds (Agapornis fischeri) [version 2; peer review: 1 approved]

Cytra Meyliana Surya Dewi, Yeni Dhamayanti, Faisal Fikri, Agus Purnomo, Shafia Khairani, Shekhar Chhetri, Muhammad Thohawi Elziyad Purnama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: In the issue of biodiversity, the domestication of birds as pets and trade animals requires special attention as a conservation effort. Lovebirds (Agapornis fischeri) are popular birds worldwide, due to their varied ornamentation and melodic chirping sound. Syrinx structure is suspected to be the main source of sound production during the chirping period. This study aimed to investigate syrinx morphometry and its correlation with sound frequency produced in lovebirds. Methods: A total of 24 lovebirds of different ages and gender were investigated. Polymerase chain reaction method was performed to determine lovebird gender, meanwhile bird age was identified based on post-hatch recordings at the breeding farm. Thus, we enrolled male (n=12) and female (n=12) lovebirds aged 2 (n=4), 3 (n=4), and 4 (n=4) months in the investigation group, respectively. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was performed to evaluate sound frequency during chirping period. Then, syrinx morphometry was identified using a topographic approach and methylene blue staining. Each variable was evaluated with Image J software and vernier caliper. Results: Based on a topographical approach, we reported the general cartilage structure of the tracheosyringeal, bronchosyringeal, paired protrusions, tracheolateral muscles, sternotracheal muscles, and syringeal muscles in lovebird syrinx. In particular, the tympaniform membranes lateral lead a crucial role in modulating the frequency of male lovebirds more significantly (p=0,009) compared to female. On the other hand, the tympaniform membranes lateral dexter (p=0,02) and sinister (p=0,05) in females showed wider compared to male. We also reported a negative correlation between sound frequency compared to tympaniform membranes lateral dexter (y =-913,56x + 6770,8) and sinister (y =-706,16x + 5736). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the tympaniform membranes lateral produced the lovebirds’ primary sound. The sound frequency of male lovebirds was higher compared to female, however negatively correlated with the area of tympaniform membranes lateral.

Original languageEnglish
Article number354
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Agapornis fischeri
  • biodiversity
  • lovebird
  • sound frequency
  • syrinx morphometry


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