An Analysis of Genetic Risk Factors (Chromosomes 3 and 9) and Mutation of Spike COVID-19 in the Severity and Transmission Factor

Farida Anwari, Fery Setiawan, Arif Rahman Nurdianto, Theresia Indah Budhy, Heribertus AB Tena, Heni Puspitasari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The world was shocked by novel coronavirus disease-19 (nCoV-19) in Wuhan City which declared as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO). There are still some problems, especially in the appearance of both Variant of Investigations and Concerns caused second or third wave. These variants related to the Spike glycoprotein mutation and genetic risk factors on chromosome number 3 and 9. The findings of this article review was COVID-19 severity related to the genetic risk factor namely in chromosome 3p21.31 and 9q34 which its relationship is reciprocal in the level of C5a and SC5b-9 on the ABO groups with the worst severity was on A blood group. A blood group had higher increase of ferritin and procoagulant factor that reflected the severity of the disease and exaggerated complement activation leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The mutations in D614G Spike glycoprotein resulted in changing aspartic acid into glycine also increased the transmission factor even though in the vaccinated persons through neutralizing antibodies of vaccine induced antibody. We review the severity and increased transmission in COVID-19 related to both genetic of host risk factors and mutation of Spike SARS-CoV-2 glycoprotein which their relationship was reciprocal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)885-890
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Complement activation
  • Covid-19
  • Genetic risk factors
  • Spike glycoprotein mutations
  • Variant of concerns-investigations


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