Adverse Effects of Long-term Proton Pump Inhibitors in Chronic Liver Disease Patients – A Preliminary Article Review

Ummi Maimunah, Andreas Agung Kurniawan, Andrio Palayukan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed medications for the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease. Despite their efficacy, concerns have emerged regarding their potential adverse effects, particularly in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). CLD patients often experience gastrointestinal symptoms and may be prescribed PPIs, but the impact of PPI use on liver function and disease progression remains uncertain. Scope: This study aims to evaluate the adverse effects of PPIs on CLD patients through a review of available literature. The scope encompasses a review of studies examining the association between PPI use and liver-related outcomes, including hepatic encephalopathy, hepatic decompensation, liver cirrhosis progression, and mortality, among CLD patients. Method: A scoping review of relevant literature were conducted to identify studies investigating the adverse effects of PPIs in CLD patients. Databases including PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles published up to January, 1 2023. Eligible studies were selected based on predefined inclusion criteria. Results: The review identified 27 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, comprising observational studies and meta-analysis. The review revealed a significant association between PPI use and adverse liver outcomes in CLD patients. Specifically, PPI use was associated with increased risk of SBP based on studies reviewed, while other complications remained inconclusive. Conclusion: The findings suggest that PPI use may have detrimental effects on disease progression in CLD patients, Long-term use of PPIs can lead to higher risk of SBP in CLD patients. Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing PPIs to this vulnerable population and consider alternative treatment options or minimize PPI use to mitigate potential adverse outcomes. Further research is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, confirm the effect of PPIs toward other complications of CLD and establish guidelines for PPI use in CLD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-97
Number of pages11
JournalReview of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics, International Edition
Volume38
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Keywords

  • chronic liver disease
  • hepatic encephalopathy
  • hepatitis
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • proton pump inhibitors
  • spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

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