Advances in the Production of Minor Ginsenosides Using Microorganisms and Their Enzymes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Minor ginsenodes are of great interest due to their diverse pharmacological activities such as their anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective, immunomodulator, and anti-inflammatory effects. The miniscule amount of minor ginsenosides in ginseng plants has driven the development of their mass production methods. Among the various production methods for minor ginsenosides, the utilization of microorganisms and their enzymes are considered as highly specific, safe, and environmentally friendly. In this review, various minor ginsenosides production strategies, namely utilizing microorganisms and recombinant microbial enzymes, for biotransforming major ginsenosides into minor ginsenoside, as well as constructing synthetic minor ginsenosides production pathways in yeast cell factories, are described and discussed. Furthermore, the present challenges and future research direction for producing minor ginsenosides using those approaches are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-24
Number of pages10
JournalBIO Integration
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Ginsenosides
  • biosynthesis
  • biotransformation
  • minor ginsenosides
  • β-glucosidase


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