Beef consumption produces a lot of bone waste. Here, We prepared Bali cow bones-based hydrochar material (BCBHP) using the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) method. The resulting BCBHP material was then characterized using XRD, FTIR, FESEM-EDX, and BET-BJH. Next, the BCBHP was applied to adsorb methyl red in water samples. Adsorption was carried out using a bath system. Adsorption of methyl red persisted optimum for 30 min at pH 6 at 303.15 K, with a capacity of 7.2 mg g−1. The Zeta potential of BCBHP is −24.4 mV suggesting a higher electrostatic attraction between methyl red dye and BCBHP surface. Methyl red adsorption fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Adsorption of Methyl red dye on BCBHP follows the Freundlich isotherm model and is well described by a heterolayer adsorption pattern. Thermodynamic studies show that adsorption processes are spontaneous, exothermic, and chemisorption reactions. Moreover, BCBHP has an excellent reusability performance that could be used as a promising adsorbent for dye removal in wastewater treatment.
- Methyl red