Acute renal failure in a patient with severe malaria and dengue shock syndrome

M. Thaha, Pranawa, M. Yogiantoro, M. Tanimoto, Yasu Tomino

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16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by plasmodium, which lives and breeds in human blood cells, and is transmitted through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. Renal impairment, often caused by malaria, is acute renal failure (ARF) due to acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Dengue virus is transmitted from human to human through Aedes aegypti mosquito bites. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), the most severe stage of infection, is characterized by bleeding and shock tendencies (dengue shock syndrome, DSS). ARF is a less common complication in patients with DHF, with an incidence of less than 10%. Mixed infections of two infectious agents may cause overlapping symptoms and have been reported in Africa and India. We report here a patient with ARF due to mixed infection of severe malaria and DSS. The patient presented with fever and bad a history of repeated malaria infection. Physical examination revealed stable vital signs and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory data showed hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia and increased serum aminotransferase. Chest X-ray showed pleural effusion. A malarial antigen and thick smear examination showed the trophozoite stage of P. falciparum. On Day 3, blood pressure dropped to 80/60 mmHg, pulse was 120 beats/minute, weak, and body temperature 36.8 °C, with icterus. Other tests revealed an increase of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, and serologically anti-dengue IgG antibody (+) and anti-dengue IgM antibody (-). Based on these findings, we diagnosed the patient as having both malaria and DDS. We treated the patient with the parenteral anti-malarial agent, artemisinin. Supportive treatment and treatment of complications were also performed simultaneously for DSS. The patient experieticed an oliguria episode but responded well to a diuretic. The patient was discharged after clinical and laboratory examinations showed positive progress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427-430
Number of pages4
JournalClinical Nephrology
Volume70
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2008

Keywords

  • Acute renal failure
  • Dengue shock syndrome
  • Malaria
  • Plasmodium falciparum

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