2 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of goat bile in BALB/c mice since some Indonesian people consume raw goat gallbladder to treat malaria and increase stamina. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity test was done in six groups of BALB/c mice using 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.75% of goat bile and negative control. The death of mice was observed within 14 days. In the subacute toxicity test, the body weight and hematology parameters on day 0 and day 4 post-treatment were evaluated. The mice were closely observed for 28 days before plasma collection for the blood biochemistry evaluation. Results: Mild diarrhea was observed in acute and subacute toxicity tests. No death of mice was observed in acute test. Goat bile did not inhibit the increase of the body weight of mice. A slight reduction in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in mice treated with 25% and 50% goat bile, however, remained normal in mice treated with 100% goat bile. The red and white blood cell count were not affected. Liver and kidney functions were not affected by goat bile treatment as revealed by the plasma level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine, which remained in the normal range. Conclusion: Goat bile treatment in BALB/c mice caused mild toxicity in mice. Hydrophobic bile acids may cause the toxicity of goat bile in mice; therefore, it is recommended that goat bile consumption not to be taken oftenly to avoid its harmful effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)515-520
Number of pages6
JournalVeterinary World
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • BALB/c mice
  • Goat bile
  • Indonesia
  • Toxicity


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