Active Immunotherapy for Glioblastoma Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Joni Wahyuhadi, Irwan Barlian Immadoel Haq, Muhammad Reza Arifianto, Bagus Sulistyono, Rizki Meizikri, Atika Rosada, Cita Rosita Sigit Prakoeswa, Rahadian Indarto Susilo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) makes 60–70% of gliomas and 15% of primary brain tumors. Despite the availability of standard multimodal therapy, 2 years, 3 years, and 5 years survival rate of GBM are still low. Active immunotherapy is a relatively new treatment option for GBM that seems promising. Methods: An electronic database search on PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, and was performed to include all relevant studies. This study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Reported parameters are OS, PFS, AEs, post treatment KPS, and 2 year mortality. Results: Active immunotherapy provided better OS (HR =.85; 95% CI =.71–1.01; P =.06) and PFS (HS =.83; 95% CI=.66 – 1.03; P =.11) side albeit not statistically significant. Active immunotherapy reduces the risk of 2 year mortality as much as 2.5% compared to control group (NNT and RRR was 56.7078 and 0,0258, respectively). Conclusion: Active immunotherapy might be beneficial in terms of survival rate in patients with GBM although not statistically significant. It could be a treatment option for GBM in the future.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCancer Control
Publication statusPublished - 16 Mar 2022


  • active immunotherapy
  • glioblastoma
  • glioblastoma multiforme
  • high-grade glioma
  • vaccine


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