Abuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids and Adverse Effects on Human Organ Health: A Review

Novadri Ayubi, Nining Widyah Kusnanik, Lilik Herawati, Anton Komaini, Toho Cholik Mutohir, Cyuzuzo Callixte, Mohammed Aljunaid, Nurhasan Nurhasan, Heryanto Nur Muhammad, Bambang Purwanto, Muhamad Sazeli Rifki, Dhea Regita Sastika Putri, Atika Syafawi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are large groups of molecules structurally and functionally similar to the male hormone testosterone. The use of AAS is well known and widespread worldwide due to its androgenic and anabolic properties that can increase muscle mass and strength to support athlete performance. The prevalence of AAS worldwide reaches an incidence of 5% and is generally used by men aged 18-35. AAS has many side effects on the body's organs and is a serious problem for public health and athletics. This review aims to highlight the abuse of AAS and its detrimental effects on the health of human organs. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are common mechanisms that cause organ damage due to AAS use. Chronic administration of high doses of AAS results in cardiac dysfunction and increases the risks of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. In addition, several organs that have the potential to be damaged by the use of AAS include the liver, kidneys, brain, musculoskeletal system, and reproductive organs. In this regard, education intervention and knowledge sharing are the important factors that should be used to raise awareness about preventing AAS abuse.

Original languageEnglish
Article number281
JournalBiointerface Research in Applied Chemistry
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2023

Keywords

  • anabolic-androgenic steroids
  • exercise
  • healthy lifestyle
  • organs
  • sport

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