Purine nucleotides and nucleosides are involved in various human physiological and pathological mechanisms. The pathological deregulation of purinergic signaling contributes to various chronic respiratory diseases. Among the adenosine receptors, A2B has the lowest affinity such that it was long considered to have little pathophysiological significance. Many studies suggest that A2BAR plays protective roles during the early stage of acute inflammation. However, increased adenosine levels during chronic epithelial injury and inflammation might activate A2BAR, resulting in cellular effects relevant to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis.
- chronic respiratory diseases
- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- purinergic signaling