Objective: The treatment of periodontitis with scaling and root planing has a good prognosis. However, periodontitis may also exacerbate. The mucoadhesive patch is one of the distribution systems of topical drugs, which is not irritable to the mucosa and eventually increases permeability. Based on phytochemical screening, mangosteen peel extract has an active ingredient with high anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. This study aims to understand the potential of a mucoadhesive patch loaded with mangosteen peel extract to inhibit alveolar bone damage in periodontitis. Methods: This experimental laboratory research was conducted using 27 Wistar rats divided into three groups: the positive control group (0.7% tetracycline gel application), negative control group (mucoadhesive patch application), and experimental group (mucoadhesive patch loaded with mangosteen peel extract application). Rats were administered 1 × 109 colony-forming unit as much as 200 μL of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans bacteria three times at 2-day intervals. Tetracycline gel and mucoadhesive patch application were administered for 1 h/day for 3 days. Three rats from each group were sacrificed on days 3, 5, and 7 after the application. The lower jaw was dissected for histopathological examination using haematoxylin and eosin staining to determine the number of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Results: The mucoadhesive patches loaded with mangosteen peel extract significantly reduced the number of osteoclasts and increased the number of osteoblasts in all groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The mucoadhesive patches loaded with mangosteen peel extract can prevent alveolar bone damage in periodontitis by inhibiting the number of osteoclasts and increasing the number of osteoblasts.
- Mangosteen peel extract
- Mucoadhesive patch