Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a S. aureus strain resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and is often associated with livestock, known as livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. Using molecular typing with multi-locus sequence typing, MRSA clones have been classified in pigs, including clonal complex 398. Livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant S. aureus was first discovered in pigs in the Netherlands in 2005. Since then, it has been widely detected in pigs in other countries. Livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant S. aureus can be transmitted from pigs to pigs, pigs to humans (zoonosis), and humans to humans. This transmission is enabled by several risk factors involved in the pig trade, including the use of antibiotics and zinc, the size and type of the herd, and the pig pen management system. Although LA-MRSA has little impact on the pigs’ health, it can be transmitted from pig to pig or from pig to human. This is a serious concern as people in direct contact with pigs are highly predisposed to acquiring LA-MRSA infection. The measures to control LA-MRSA spread in pig farms include conducting periodic LA-MRSA screening tests on pigs and avoiding certain antibiotics in pigs. This study aimed to review the emerging LA-MRSA strains in pig farms.
- livestock-associated-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
- public health