A retrospective cohort study of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome risk in women with history of preterm and term preeclampsia five years after delivery

Aditiawarman, Noor Assyifa Zulhijayanti, Ernawati Ernawati, Muhammad Ilham Aldika Akbar

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Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate maternal hypertension, risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and metabolic syndrome five years after delivery in preterm preeclampsia (P-PE), term preeclampsia (T-PE), and normal pregnancy. Study design: This was a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered at Dr. Soetomo Academic Hospital (Indonesia) in 2013 with a diagnosis of PE and were compared with women with normal pregnancies. Main outcomes measures: Blood pressure, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome (NCE-ATP III), and Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Results: In this study, 92 women participated. They were divided into the P-PE (27), T-PE (35), and control groups (30). Women with a history of PE, P-PE, or T-PE had higher blood pressure five years after delivery than those in the control group (p < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg was seen in 66.7% of P-PE and 25.7% of T-PE, while 55.6% of P-PE and 34.3% of T-PE had diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mmHg (p < 0.05). Women with P-PE had the highest risk of developing hypertension (Relative risk (RR): 20; 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 2.85–139.92). Women with history of P-PE (RR: 1.85; 95% CI: 0.77–4.41), T-PE (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.51–3.19), and total PE (RR: 1.53; 95% CI: 0.68–3.43) had an increased risk of positive NECP-ATP III five years after delivery. Women with history of P-PE (RR: 5.17; 95% CI: 0.26–103.22; p = 0.282) and T-PE (RR: 6.03; 95% CI: 0.32–112.22; p = 0.228) are at a greater risk of having an FRS >10% compared to the control group (p = 0.04). Conclusions: History of PE, P-PE, and T-PE increased the risk of hypertension and CVD five years after delivery. The results also showed a tendency toward an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in women with a previous history of PE and P-PE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-63
Number of pages7
JournalPregnancy Hypertension
Volume32
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Long-term impact
  • Maternal health
  • Metabolic disease
  • Preeclampsia

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