Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis in people of all ages. Humans are the primary source of NoV and household contact is one of the risk factors for NoV transmission. However, the mechanisms underlying person-to-person NoV transmission are poorly understood. Here we conducted a survey to profile the frequency and characteristics of intrafamily NoV transmission. Stool samples were collected every week from three households between 2016 and 2020; the total number of samples was 1105. The detection of NoV and the genotyping were performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction targeting the capsid region and direct sequencing methods. NoV was detected in 3.4% of all samples. Eight NoV genotypes were identified. The most common genotype was GII.17, followed in order by GII.6, GI.6, GII.4, GI.3, and GI.2/GI.8/GI.9. Most NoV-positive samples were obtained from asymptomatic individuals. The highest number of NoV transmissions was found in household 3 (6 infections), followed by household 2 (2 infections), while household 1 had no NoV transmission, suggesting that asymptomatic NoV carriers play a major role in infection as NoV reservoirs in the households. Further clarification of the mode of infection will contribute to improved understanding and an appropriate prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere29164
JournalJournal of Medical Virology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • asymptomatic
  • genotypes
  • norovirus
  • symptomatic
  • transmission


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