A Developmental Biology of Endochondral Ossification Critical Size Defect Bone

Rezka Ajeng Pradhitta, Pratiwi Soesilawati, Wan Himratul Aznita Wan Harun, Alifiya Afita Sari, Padma Cahyaning Pertiwi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Bone is a highly dynamic tissue that constantly remodels throughout life. Bone damage caused by surgical procedures or trauma can be repaired using a variety of mechanisms that vary depending on the level of immobilization, the degree of trauma, and the ongoing biological processes. This is related to the process of endochondral and intramembranous ossification that will occur to regenerate fractured bone. During human development, most of the human skeleton is formed through endochondral ossification. The majority of craniofacial bone is formed through intramembranous ossification. It is known that endochondral ossification occurs during the development of the mandibular column, skull base, and temporal bone. Although endochondral ossification is limited to the previously mentioned regions of the craniofacial skeleton, it is the original pathway in the growth of the human face and skull. Furthermore, trauma to the craniofacial bone heals similarly to that of the long bone skeleton. Endochondral ossification may be found in the healing of craniofacial fractures depending on the type and location of the defect as well as the mechanical environment. Many aspects of the healing cascade, such as bone molecules, cells, and events, have been identified, but complex interactions and processes remain unknown. This review examines endochondral ossification avenues, the current state-of-the-art in critical size defect reconstruction, challenges in implementing current knowledge, and the future. give insight into the future of translational research from the bench to the bedside.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)198-202
Number of pages5
JournalMalaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • buiological process
  • craniofacial
  • endochondral ossification
  • human health
  • trauma


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