Antimalarial drugs derived from plants have proven their effectiveness for centuries. The discovery of new antimalarials drugs from natural plant products has been widely studied to overcome drug resistance that threatens the control of malaria. The development of new malaria drugs sourced from plants has been widely performed. The purpose of this review was to create a compilation of plant species that had been investigated as antimalarial drug, its molecular mechanisms of action and ligands, from studies that had been published in Pubmed NCBI, Google scholar, and Researchgate. Several plants that have been investigated as antimalarial drugs include Aloe spp, Allium sativum, Alstonia scholaris, Morinda citrifolia, Andrographis paniculate, Carica papaya, Momordica charantia, Tinospora crispa, Moringa oleifera, Physalis angulate, Nigella sativa, Cocos nucifera, Piperaceae. Molecular mechanism of action of Aloe spp, Allium sativum, Alstonia scholaris, Morinda citrifolia, Andrographis paniculata, Carica papaya, Momordica charantia, Moringa oleifera, Physalis angulate, Nigella sativa, Cocos nucifera, Piper spp is by inhibiting the formation of hemozoin, nucleic acids, protein synthesis, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide, affect the transcription and transduction signaling process. Ligands involved in the process were protease, plasmepsin, hemozoin, 3d7 and rkl-9 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), Plasmodium falciparum Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase-2 (PfCDPK-2), Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (pfDHFR-TS). However, mechanism of action of Tinospora crispa is still unclear.
- Mechanism of Action