A comprehensive review of recent advances in the applications and biosynthesis of oxalic acid from bio-derived substrates

Andrew Nosakhare Amenaghawon, Joshua Efosa Ayere, Ubani Oluwaseun Amune, Ifechukwude Christopher Otuya, Emmanuel Christopher Abuga, Chinedu Lewis Anyalewechi, Oseweuba Valentine Okoro, Jude A. Okolie, Peter Kayode Oyefolu, Steve Oshiokhai Eshiemogie, Blessing Esohe Osahon, Melissa Omede, Stanley Aimhanesi Eshiemogie, Shedrach Igemhokhai, Maxwell Ogaga Okedi, Heri Septya Kusuma, Obiora Ebuka Muojama, Amin Shavandi, Handoko Darmokoesoemo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Organic acids are important compounds with numerous applications in different industries. This work presents a comprehensive review of the biological synthesis of oxalic acid, an important organic acid with many industrial applications. Due to its important applications in pharmaceuticals, textiles, metal recovery, and chemical and metallurgical industries, the global demand for oxalic acid has increased. As a result, there is an increasing need to develop more environmentally friendly and economically attractive alternatives to chemical synthesis methods, which has led to an increased focus on microbial fermentation processes. This review discusses the specific strategies for microbial production of oxalic acid, focusing on the benefits of using bio-derived substrates to improve the economics of the process and promote a circular economy in comparison with chemical synthesis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the various fermentation methods, fermenting microorganisms, and the biochemistry of oxalic acid production. It also highlights key sustainability challenges and considerations related to oxalic acid biosynthesis, providing important direction for further research. By providing and critically analyzing the most recent information in the literature, this review serves as a comprehensive resource for understanding the biosynthesis of oxalic acid, addressing critical research gaps, and future advances in the field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118703
JournalEnvironmental Research
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2024


  • Bacteria
  • Fermentation
  • Fungi
  • Microorganism
  • Organic acid
  • Oxalic acid


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