2018-2019 Update on the Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in Indonesia

Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Ni Luh Ayu Megasari, Shuhei Ueda, Waras Budiman, Tomohiro Kotaki, Nasronudin, Masanori Kameoka

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5 Citations (Scopus)


The HIV type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic has continued to grow in Indonesia; however, continuous updates on the epidemiology of HIV-1 in Indonesia remain challenging because it is the biggest archipelago in the world. Furthermore, the emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) has had a negative impact on the treatment of infected individuals. In this study, we performed HIV-1 subtyping and the detection of HIVDR in 105 HIV-1-infected individuals residing in various cities in Indonesia during 2018-2019. The results obtained identified CRF01_AE as the major epidemic HIV-1 strain, responsible for 81.9% of infection cases, followed by subtype B (12.4%), CRF02_AG (3.8%), CRF52_01B (1%), and a recombinant between CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG (1.0%). Major drug resistance-Associated mutations against reverse transcriptase inhibitors were detected in 20% of samples. These results suggest that CRF01_AE is a major HIV-1 strain in Indonesia, while CRF02_AG is emerging. The prevalence of HIVDR in Indonesia needs to be monitored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)957-963
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • CRF01_AE
  • CRF02_AG
  • HIV drug resistance
  • HIV-1 subtype
  • Indonesia


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